Cubism is a European avant-garde artistic movement, which originated in France at the beginning of the 20th century and whose main characteristic is the portrait of nature through geometric figures. cubism in art
What is cubism? cubism in art
- Origin: From the French “Cubisme”, union of the words “cube” + ism. That is, use of cubes. In Brazil the word was adapted to “Cubism”. cubism in art
- Synonyms: None.
- Grammatical class: Masculine noun.
Learn more about what Cubism means
Cubism is an artistic movement of the early 20th century that developed in the fine arts and expanded into literature and poetry a few years later. It is a European avant-garde movement originating in France.
Despite having opened in Paris, the renowned Spanish painter Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973) was responsible for marking the beginning of the movement with the painting “Les demoisellers d’Avignon” (in Portuguese, “The Ladies of Avignon) in 1907. ”.
The main characteristic of Cubism is to represent figures of nature through the use of geometric figures, resulting in fragmented and decomposed perspectives and planes. Unlike what happened in Realism, the artist does not intend to represent reality and puts natural things in his works, such as flowers , people and animals in abstract forms. He wants greater freedom to portray his world. cubism in art
The aim of the Cubist painter is to try to represent three-dimensional objects on a flat surface. For this, he abuses geometric shapes, especially with straight lines. In this way, he does not represent, but suggests silhouettes that are understood. It is as if there is movement between them. One of the characteristics is to be understood in different ways as visual angles are changed. cubism in art
Still, Cubism is not an abstract art as all forms are used in a concrete way. Speaking of which, the movement is rich in cubes, spheres, cylinders and triangles. It is considered a mental art, as it forces people to analyze their works taking into account their own experiences and ways of seeing reality. cubism in art
In addition to Pablo Picasso, other great exponents of this artistic movement are Georges Braque (1882 – 1963), a Frenchman who shares the title of initiator of Cubism with the Spaniard, Fernand Léger (1881 – 1955) and Juan Gris (1887 – 1927). In Brazil, the main artist of this style is Tarsila do Amaral (1886 – 1973).
The Cubist movement went through three different moments. The beginning was in what became known as “Cézannian Cubism” (1907 – 1909) – it is also called “pre-analytical Cubism”. In this first phase, Paul Cézanne (1839 – 1906) served as the basis for the strengthening of Cubism. His work was influenced by African arts. cubism in art
As the artist made a lot of use of simple forms, he helped to define the characteristics of Cubism, although not all of them were found in his works. However, many of his concepts were popularized by the likes of Pablo Picasso a few years later.
The second phase became known as “analytical cubism” (1909 – 1912), also having been named “pure cubism”. Here the figures are already decomposed due to the strong use of various geometric figures. cubism in art
The works were still strongly influenced by African culture, presenting monochromatic tones, mainly gray, brown and green. At this stage, artists felt the need to represent nature in a very simplistic way. For this, they used straight lines and uniform designs.
The last phase of the European avant-garde movement was “synthetic cubism” (1913 – 1914), which was also popularized by the name of “collage cubism”. As its name suggests, this final moment is characterized by the introduction of collage techniques in the works. The collages were intended to reverse the process and reconstruct the images that had previously been decomposed. cubism in art
At this stage, the images are still suggestive and retain their shapes. However, unlike analytical cubism, here it occurs in a milder way, making clear only what is necessary for the image to be recognized – its understanding is still individual.
Another change from the third phase of Cubism is the transition from monochromatic colors to more vivid palettes. Not all artists have adhered to this new concept, but important names such as Juan Gris have opted for more intense works. cubism in art
In Brazil, the first records of the manifestation of Cubism date from 1922, after the important Modern Art Week. Here, the movement did not manage to have the same strength that it had achieved years earlier in Europe. In fact, there was no Brazilian artist who adhered to the techniques of Cubism in its purest essence. What can be seen in the Tupiniquin works are some characteristics that were adopted and that served as inspiration for important names, such as Di Cavalcanti (1897 – 1976), Rego Monteiro (1899 – 1970), Anita Malfatti (1889 – 1964) and Tarsila do Amaral.
Despite not having had such an impact here, Cubism was an important period and served as an influence for other great movements that would take place later. An example of this is Concretism. cubism in art
In literature, Cubism also manifested itself in a very peculiar way. In poems, deconstruction occurs in the verses. There is no description and each verse is autonomous. Ideas are valued and appear in simple verses.
Another characteristic is the lack of linearity and chronology in the narratives. Past, present and future are mixed and it is up to the reader to understand them. Artists don’t want the easy lyricism and sentimentality that was typical of the time. They make a lot of use of humor with some irony .
As if the lack of a historical order wasn’t enough to allow different interpretations, Cubist writers were adept at mysterious visions, exotic settings and fast travel. As in plastic works, literary works should encourage the reader to observe from different angles. With varied perspectives he would be able to interpret in his own way. cubism in art
The Cubist’s aim was to portray reality in a simpler way than we are used to seeing. This often resulted in works that were suggestive and allowed for more than one judgment.