Examples of anabolism

It is a metabolic stage in which complex substances are formed by simpler ones in order to increase muscle mass and growth, and to manufacture new cells to replace damaged ones. It is also known as biosynthesis and is complemented by another process called catabolism, which consists of the degradation of organic nutrients turning them into simpler substances by extracting energy from cells.

For all living beings to be able to live , these metabolic processes are necessary , taking into account that both animals and plants have anabolic processes, although of a different nature, so the names they receive are not the same.

Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a process for life on earth , and it is the one used by plants, algae and some bacteria. The process is as follows: the energy that comes from sunlight is converted into chemical energy in the form of sugars, which allows food, growth and development.

Of course, it is essential to know that for photosynthesis to take place, chlorophyll (a natural green compound) is necessary, which is found in the leaves, since it fulfills the function of absorbing light.

Protein synthesis

Protein synthesis or translation is a chemical process in which proteins are formed thanks to essential amino acids. The latter are transported by the tRNA (transfer RNA) to the mRNA (messenger RNA), which is responsible for choosing the order in which the amino acids are to be linked to form the chain. This process occurs in the ribosomes, that is, one of the organelles in the cytoplasm of a cell.

Mitosis

Mitosis is a process that occurs in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells and is based on the transformation of a single cell into two identical cells so that there is cell growth and old cells can be changed.

This cell division consists of 4 phases:

  • Prophase
  • metaphase
  • Anaphase
  • telophase

Calvin cycle

The Calvin cycle, also known as the photosynthesis carbon fixation cycle, is a chemical process that occurs in chloroplasts (organelles found in plant cells).

This focuses on the creation of reactions so that the carbon taken from the atmosphere is fixed in a solid structure so that glucose is formed thanks to the action of the RuBisCo enzyme.

Gluconeogenesis

Gluconeogenesis is an anabolic metabolic pathway in which glucose is synthesized from non-glucidic substrates, mainly in the liver or kidney.

For this it is necessary to use different amino acids , glycerol, lactate, pyruvate and other intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which serve as sources of C. In addition, it must be taken into account that all amino acids, with the exception of the Leucine and lysine can be used to make glucose.

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