The discovery of the cell has been one of the most important in history, since it allowed us to understand complex aspects of the organism of living beings, which helped the development of some scientific disciplines. And what is? The essential basic unit found in all living beings, which fulfills vital functions such as nutrition, reproduction, relationship, and which is made up of a cytoplasm, one or more nuclei and a membrane.
Organisms can be made up of a single cell and are called unicellular organisms , while others are made up of a number of cells of different types and specializations, which are known as multicellular organisms.
Epithelial cells line body surfaces such as the urinary tract, skin layers, the inner lining of organs, and blood vessels, among others. They are a barrier between the outside and the inside of the body, since they are the first to be attacked by viruses.
Gametes are male (sperm) or female (egg) reproductive cells that only carry half of an individual’s genome. These cells begin to mature at puberty , at which time the sexual organs develop. In the case of women, they continue to occur until approximately 50 years of age, while in men they continue throughout life, although in smaller amounts.
Neurons are cells of the central nervous system that have a kind of electricity, which helps them to be used as conductors and receivers of stimuli from the NS. In the brain it is estimated that there are about 80 million at birth and when they reach maturity they do not reproduce.
Hepatocytes are a type of hepatic cell that performs most of the functions of the liver by being responsible for producing bile , which has the function of acting at the time of the decomposition of food in the stomach.
Red blood cells
Red blood cells or erythrocytes are cells that are produced in the bone marrow and are found in the blood. Inside they carry hemoglobin, that is, a protein that fulfills the function of carrying oxygen from the lungs to other tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs for expulsion.
Macrophages are a type of white blood cell, so they are part of the body’s immune system.
These are specialized in the detection, phagocytosis and destruction of organisms harmful to health such as bacteria. In addition, they are formed with the differentiation of monocytes, which leave the blood circulation to attack pathogens and thus be the first line of defense in protection. Finally, it should be noted that macrophages fulfill the function of cleaners by eliminating dead cells.