From the physical point of view, elasticity is known as a mechanical property that certain bodies have with the aim of modifying their shape by external forces and returning to their resting shape, either at that moment or later. It is important to know that this property can only be attributed to a body in a solid state, since the other remaining bodies have laws of motion that do not allow it.
Many of the solid materials of everyday life are made up of elastic materials and also in industry, which use it to improve their conditions and their applications, taking construction as an example to predict the resistant behavior of any element to be used.
Examples of compression / tension elasticity
- Eraser: 27MPa
- Fishing line: 1300 MPa
- Wood: 14,000 MPa
- Brass: 110,000 MPa
- Steel: 210,000 MPa
- Graphene: 1,000,000 MPa
Examples of elastic materials
Rubber is a natural or synthetic polymer that is obtained thanks to the sap of some trees and is characterized by repelling water, resisting electricity and being very elastic. Its use is very wide, since it is a material with which plastic objects such as a ball or a toy are made.
Polyurethane foam or also known as foam rubber is a porous plastic material formed by the gaseous chemical reaction of 2 compounds , a polyol and an isocyanate. Its use is very varied, but the most common is to find it as the main filling of mattresses or as thermal insulation or acoustic absorber in the industry.
Chicle is a gum resin that is extracted from the trunk of the sapote, native to the American continent. This polymer is used in varnishes, adhesives , insulation and plastics, without forgetting that one of its best-known uses is chewing gum.
The balloon is an object made of rubber or another material such as rubber or aluminized plastic that stands out for its flexibility when filling it with water, helium or air. The main objective is for recreational use, either as a toy or an ecological decoration element, although it is also used in the medical and laboratory field.
Gelatin is a semi – solid mixture of peptides and proteins generated by partial hydrolysis from different animal collagens, whether from tendon, hoof, viscera or bone. It is known for being very elastic and thermo-reversible , since at room temperature it curdles and at more than 27º C it becomes fluid.
Gelatin is widely used in the culinary field, which is why it is known as dessert gelatin.
Latex is the most elastic material and is made up of waxes, fats and other elements such as gummy resin, which is extracted from some angiosperm plants and fungi. There are more than 40 thousand products of daily use and it is also found in photography, tires, clothing and the manufacture of anticoagulants.